Ahead of the 30th July 2021 deadline for the submission of revised Nationally Determined Contributions to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Climate and Sustainable Development Network (CSDevNet), in collaboration with the National Civil Society Framework on Paris Agreement and the SDGs (NCSFPAS), has galvanised civil society inputs into the Nigeria’s revised NDCs.
The inputs were aggregated at the National Stakeholder Engagement Workshops on Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) Revision Process which held across the six geo-political zones of Nigeria.
The Department of Climate Change of the Federal Ministry of Environment hosted the kickoff workshop with support from The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) in Abuja on Thursday, 17th June, 2021 at the North Central Stakeholders’ Workshop.
To meet the need to prepare relevant stakeholders on what to expect in the new NDC, the workshop provided the opportunity to inform stakeholders on what has been revised in the NDCs as well seek inputs into the document for the final validation and submission..
It would be recalled that in 2015, Nigeria submitted its Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC) to tackling climate change at the Twenty-First Session of the Conference of Parties (COP 21) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in Paris. The NDCs comprised its intended contributions and strategies on climate action from 2015 to 2030.
The subsequent signing and ratification of the Paris Agreement further reinforced the country’s commitment towards the global quest to reduce Greenhouse Gases (GHG) emissions that complement several domestic efforts to address climate change.
Nigeria committed, among others, to reduce carbon dioxide 45% conditionally and 20% unconditionally, end gas flaring by 2030, improve the electricity grid to achieve 30% energy efficiency by 2030, and adopt reforestation and climate-smart agriculture measures.
The revised NDCs is aimed at evaluating performance, improving and enhancing the NDCs; securing national ownership of the revised NDC by reflecting national interests and priorities through a whole-of-society approach; improving data and assessments; strengthening institutions and measures of implementation; increasing ambition based on the available best science and national circumstances; and setting new targets possibly.
Sequel to the commitment and the nation’s timeline being 2030, it is committed to submitting a revised NDC five years after and efforts are undertaken to make this a reality.
In March 2020, Nigeria started the journey to revise its NDC as obligatory to all parties to the agreement. This was made possible with the support from different Implementing Partners under the umbrella of the NDC Partnership Climate Action Enhancement Package (CAEP).
Huzi Mshelia, Coordinator, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)-NDC Support Programme, disclosed that the revised NDC would be better than the 2015 version because there was a wider range of stakeholders’ consultations to ensure awareness, ownership and capacity to better develop and implement the NDC.
He said that the updated NDC has integrated nature-based solutions, adaptation and resilience, vulnerability assessment, the potential of clean cooking, gender and green jobs assessment, and bottom-up renewable energy transition pathway for 2030.
“Under the revised NDC, targets are based on strong underlying data and are detailed, achievable, and verifiable.”
“The waste and water sectors have now been included to ensure better analysis, quantification, and costing. This time around, targets are developed under an inclusive and transparent process, and that the targets are strategically aligned with national policy, especially the Economic Sustainability Plan.”
In the National efforts towards implementation of the Paris Agreement, Nigeria ratified the Paris Agreement in 2017; submitted its first NDC in 2015 with a timeframe up to 2030; and developed the NDC Sectoral Action Plan in 2017.
Progressively, there have been Sovereign Green Bond issuance in 2017 & 2018, commercial green bond 2019 (Access Bank); Gender Action Plan for Climate Change (2020); Third National Communication submitted to the UNFCCC (April 2020); Biennial Update Report submitted (March 2018); Climate Registry in place, domiciled at the DCC; Draft Climate Change Bill under review by the DCC; and the Revised National Climate Change Policy 2021.
Currently, the NDC update process is ongoing and Nigeria’s commitment to enhanced ambition in the 2021 NDC (based on UNGA announcement)- albeit too early to communicate specific changes;
In terms of achievements so far made, Mshelia, stated that apart from submitting the Interim NDC to the UNFCCC on 27th May, 2021, all technical assessments, reviews and analysis have been completed.
He noted that after a national validation and approval by the Federal Executive Council (FEC), the document would be submitted to the UN climate change body before 31st July, 2021.
Besides reviewing the draft and providing inputs at the national validation, Mshelia told the CSOs that they are also expected to participate in the implementation of the NDC actively and monitor its performance.
The revised NDC will be different/better than that of 2015 by having a wider range of stakeholders’ consultations (whole-of-society approach) to ensure awareness, ownership and capacity to better develop and implement NDCs.
Updated NDC will integrate nature-based solutions, adaptation & resilience, vulnerability assessment, potential of clean cooking, gender and green jobs assessment, bottom-up renewable energy transition pathway for 2030;
Targets of the revised NDCs are based on strong underlying data and are detailed, achievable, and verifiable; additional sectors (water & waste) have better analysis, quantification, costing; targets are developed under an inclusive and transparent process, and targets are strategically aligned with national policy (Economic Sustainability Plan).
Prof. Olukayode Oladipo, University of Lagos, gave a presentation on the “Assessment of the impact of climate change on water”, highlighting that water was not one of the sectors in the first NDC document.
He described water as being central to any development and a connector among global commitments like the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), Paris Agreement (climate change) and Sendai Framework (disaster risk reduction).
“Nigeria has water resources estimated at 215 billion m3 of surface and 87 billion m3 ground water. Nigeria is blessed with water, numerous water and water related policies are in existence.”
“Wetlands have been tampered with so there is a need to preserve or restore them. There is a need for reforestation of coastal mangrove forests and restoration of water sources. “Integrated water resources management (IWRM) approach should be adopted for sustainable development of the country’s river basins, including the transboundary sources.
There is need to protect and restore degraded watersheds and wetlands to protect water resources and related ecosystems services.” “Your role as CSOs is to form yourselves into a block and exert pressure on government. NGOs are not doing enough. You need to put yourselves together. I want you to form platforms in line with the geo-political zones – six platforms. Your role is advocacy.”
Dr. Eugene Itua, Natural Eco Capital, spoke on the 2050 Long-Term Vision for Nigeria (LTV-2050),stating that in addition to the NDC effort, Nigeria decided to formulate and communicate its Long-term Low Emissions Development Strategies (LT-LEDS), also known as Long-Term Strategies (LTS).
“The LTS looks at deeper efforts to lower greenhouse gas (GHG emissions), contributing to the objective of reaching net-zero GHG emissions globally around the middle of this century, 2050.”
“The scope of the project entails providing a clear sense of direction to all stakeholders for a well-managed transition to a low-carbon economy that grows existing and new sectors, creates new jobs and economic opportunities for the nation.”
Some of the key challenges outlined were the issue of data which has been the most challenging; slow responses from MDAs; Covid-19 impact has slowed down the revision process; low leveraging of government resources to implement NDC; and absence of an assessment of the impact of the 2015 NDCs.
The country has also been in a sustained economy crisis with effects on implementation; limited resources to further undertake broader assessments of other sectors; calls for development partners to scale support for climate actions; private sector participation is still lower than expected.
Itua suggested an alignment of the LTS with the NDCs while reiterating that the CSOs’ observations, contributions, suggestions and opinions count.
“LTS provides the opportunity to consider evolving adaptation needs and mitigation opportunities and strengthen strategic capacities over time. LTS focuses on significant reduction of GHG emissions or a complete decarbonization of the entire economy and NDC benefit from the guiding principles.”
Dr. Ahmed Sabo opined that there must be proper coordination across all the relevant sectors. Mainstreaming gender into the NDCs noting that to properly integrate gender into the NDC,
“Thus, systematic arrangements are vital across environment and gender ministries and other priority sectors. The involvement of the Ministry of Women Affair as the gender coordinating ministry is essential.”
“Even as the need to involve women in developing new technologies related to climate change adaptation or mitigation is underlined, other critical areas to check as women specific and priority needs and making full use of their knowledge, expertise, and traditional practices should be considered.”
Dr. Ibrahim Chojimni, CSDevNet’s Board Chair, recommended that as regards awareness advocacy and engagement, there’s need for the establishment of a permanent dialogue mechanism between national and sub-national (state and non-state actors) committed to the implementation of the NDC. With target on the local & vulnerable communities who at the frontline of the climate crisis.
“We also need to develop a communication strategy to raise awareness among the public and private sectors and civil society about the commitments undertaken by Nigeria under the NDC”.
“For monitoring and transparency, Nigeria’s revised NDC should highlight the importance of effective monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) across public and private sector stakeholders.
“The establishment of a database of current mitigation actions to track progress towards NDC targets; especially at the grassroots is key too. The NDC needs to provide a framework to guide reporting on carbon footprint across public and private sector stakeholders.”
“Considering finance and investment mobilisation, costing & budgeting of sectoral priority sectors of the NDC to understand the investment needs of the Action Plan and identify domestic gaps in funding is important.
“We need to apply gender and social inclusion criteria to the selection of priority measures and in the delivery of capacity building training; and also train national actors (public and private sector) especially CSOs on formulating proposals for accessing climate finance.”
“The Private Sector should engage and promote investment opportunities widely among project developers and investors; and also organise events on low-carbon technologies and investment opportunities in the NDC Action Plan during national business forums.
Presentations were also made by Hans Verolme of Ricardo, Prof. Francis Adesina of the Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU), Ewah Eleri of ICEED, Olugbolahan Mark-George of PFAN, Emmanuel Sogein Daminabo, and Duncan Millard of IRENA.